Adamjee Chemistry Notes for Fsc Class XI

Adamjee Coaching Center Chemistry Notes for Fsc Class XI prepared by Rehan Alam (M.Sc) Revised by Sohail Ahmed ( M.Sc) (Phil.) Session 2012-2013.Chemistry may be a branch of natural philosophy that studies the composition, structure, properties and alter of a matter. Chemistry is mainly involved with atoms and molecules and their interactions and transformations, for instance, the properties of the chemical bonds fashioned between atoms to make chemical compounds. As such, chemistry studies the involvement of electrons and numerous kinds of energy in chemistry reactions, redox reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures. Preparation and properties of complicated substances, like alloys, polymers, biological molecules, and pharmaceutical agents square measure thought of in specialized fields of chemistry.Chemistry is usually known as the central science as a result of it bridges different natural sciences like physics, earth science, and biology.Chemistry may be a branch of natural philosophy, however, distinct from physics.The etymology of the word chemistry has been abundant controversial. The history of chemistry is often copied to sure practices, called alchemy, that had been practiced for many millennia in numerous components of the planet. In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has modified over time, as new discoveries and theories increase the practicality of the science. The term “chymistry”, within the read of noted somebody Boyle in 1661, meant the topic of the fabric principles of mixed bodies. In 1663 the chemist St. Christopher Donald Arthur Glaser delineate “chymistry” as a scientific art, by that one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from them the various substances on their composition, and the way to unite them once more, and exalt them to a better perfection.

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